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Home / Drugs / Starting with A / Amantadine

An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]
CategoriesAntiviral Agents
Dopamine Agents
Antiparkinson Agents
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
ManufacturersActavis totowa llc
Banner pharmacaps inc
Sandoz inc
Usl pharma inc
Watson laboratories inc
Solvay pharmaceuticals
Endo pharmaceuticals inc
Actavis mid atlantic llc
Carolina medical products co
Hi tech pharmacal co inc
Mikart inc
Pharmaceutical assoc inc div beach products
Silarx pharmaceuticals inc
Teva pharmaceuticals usa
Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
PackagersAnip Acquisition Co.
A-S Medication Solutions LLC
Banner Pharmacaps Inc.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
Carolina Medical Products Co.
Direct Dispensing Inc.
Dispensing Solutions
Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
Heartland Repack Services LLC
Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
Lannett Co. Inc.
Major Pharmaceuticals
Mikart Inc.
Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Patient First Corp.
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Pharmaceutical Association
Physicians Total Care Inc.
Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Prepackage Specialists
Rebel Distributors Corp.
Redpharm Drug
Remedy Repack
Southwood Pharmaceuticals
Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
Tya Pharmaceuticals
UDL Laboratories
United Research Laboratories Inc.
Upsher Smith Laboratories
USL Pharma Inc.
Vangard Labs Inc.
Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Wockhardt Ltd.
Amantadine Base
Amantadine HCL
Amantadine Hydrochloride


For the chemoprophylaxis, prophylaxis, and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Also for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.


Amantadine is an antiviral drug which also acts as an antiparkinson agent, for which it is usually combined with L-DOPA when L-DOPA responses decline (probably due to tolerance). It is a derivate of adamantane, like a similar drug rimantadine. The mechanism of action of amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions is not known. It has been shown to cause an increase in dopamine release in the animal brain, and does not possess anticholinergic activity.

mechanism of action

The mechanism of its antiparkinsonic effect is not fully understood, but it appears to be releasing dopamine from the nerve endings of the brain cells, together with stimulation of norepinephrine response. It also has NMDA receptor antagonistic effects. The antiviral mechanism seems to be unrelated. The drug interferes with a viral protein, M2 (an ion channel), which is needed for the viral particle to become "uncoated" once it is taken inside the cell by endocytosis.


Deaths have been reported from overdose with amantadine. The lowest reported acute lethal dose was 2 grams. Drug overdose has resulted in cardiac, respiratory, renal or central nervous system toxicity. Cardiac dysfunction includes arrhythmia, tachycardia and hypertension. Pulmonary edema and respiratory distress (including ARDS) have been reported. Renal dysfunction including increased BUN, decreased creatinine clearance and renal insufficiency can occur. Central nervous system effects that have been reported include insomnia, anxiety, aggressive behavior, hypertonia, hyperkinesia, tremor, confusion, disorientation, depersonalization, fear, delirium, hallucination, psychotic reactions, lethargy, somnolence and coma. Seizures may be exacerbated in patients with prior history of seizure disorders. Hyperthermia has also been observed in cases where a drug overdose has occurred.


No appreciable metabolism, although negligible amounts of an acetyl metabolite have been identified.


Amantadine is well absorbed orally from the gastrointestinal tract.

half life

Mean half-lives ranged from 10 to 14 hours, however renal function impairment causes a severe increase in half life to 7 to 10 days.

route of elimination

It is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.

drug interactions

Donepezil: Possible antagonism of action

Galantamine: Possible antagonism of action

Memantine: Increased risk of CNS adverse effects with this association

Paliperidone: The atypical antipsychotic agent, paliperidone, may decrease the therapeutic effect of the anti-Parkinson's agent, amantadine. This interaction may be due to the dopamine antagonist properties of paliperidone. Consider an alternate antipsychotic in those with Parkinson's disease or consider using clozapine or quetiapine if an atypical antipsychotic is necessary.

Rivastigmine: Possible antagonism of action

Thiothixene: Thiothixene may antaonize the effects of the anti-Parkinsonian agent, Amantadine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for decreased effects of both agents.

Ziprasidone: The atypical antipsychotic, ziprasidone, may antagonize the effect of the dopamine agonist, amantadine. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for worsening of movement disorder.

Zuclopenthixol: Antagonism may occur between zuclopenthixol, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, and amantadine, a dopamine agonist. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of both agents if concurrent therapy is initiated, discontinued or dose(s) changed.