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indicationUsed to treat gonorrhoea, meningitis, and severe infections including infections of the kidney (pyelonephritis) and urinary system. Also used before an operation to prevent infection after surgery.
pharmacologyCefotaxime is a third generation intravenous cephalosporin antibiotic. It has broad spectrum activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. It does not have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cefotaxime works by inhibiting bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. A positive feature of cefotaxime is that it display a resistance to penicillinases and is useful to treat infections that are resistant to penicillin derivatives.
mechanism of actionThe bactericidal activity of cefotaxime results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis via affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Cefotaxime shows high affinity for penicillin-binding proteins in the cell wall including PBP Ib and PBP III.
toxicityAdverse effects following overdosage include nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhea, and convulsions. Oral rat LD50 is over 20,000 mg/kg while intravenous rat LD50 is over 7,000 mg/kg.
biotransformationApproximately 20-36% of an intravenously administered dose of 14C-cefotaxime is excreted by the kidney as unchanged cefotaxime and 15-25% as the desacetyl derivative, the major metabolite. The desacetyl metabolite has been shown to contribute to the bactericidal activity. Two other urinary metabolites (M2 and M3) account for about 20-25%. They lack bactericidal activity.
absorptionRapidly absorbed following intramuscular injection.
half lifeApproximately 1 hour.
route of eliminationApproximately 20-36% of an intravenously administered dose of 14C-cefotaxime is excreted by the kidney as unchanged cefotaxime and 15-25% as the desacetyl derivative, the major metabolite.
drug interactionsAmikacin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Gentamicin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Kanamycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Neomycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Netilmicin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Probenecid: Probenecid may increase the serum level of cefotaxime.
Streptomycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Tobramycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity