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indicationFor the treatment of patients with infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms in the following diseases: lower respiratory tract infections,skin and skin structure infections, urinary tract infections, bacterial septicemia, bone and joint infections, gynecologic infections, intra abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and central nervous system infections (including meningitis).
pharmacologyCeftazidime is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactam antibiotic for parenteral administration. Ceftazidime is bactericidal in action exerting its effect by inhibition of enzymes responsible for cell-wall synthesis, primarily penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3). A wide range of gram-negative organisms is susceptible to ceftazidime in vitro, including strains resistant to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides. In addition, ceftazidime has been shown to be active against gram-positive organisms. It is highly stable to most clinically important beta-lactamases, plasmid or chromosomal, which are produced by both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms and, consequently, is active against many strains resistant to ampicillin and other cephalosporins. Ceftazidime has activity against the gram-negative organisms Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Its activity against Pseudomonas is a distinguishing feature of ceftazidime among the cephalosporins.
mechanism of actionThe bactericidal activity of ceftazidime results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis via affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).
toxicityCeftazidime overdosage has occurred in patients with renal failure. Reactions have included seizure activity, encephalopathy, asterixis, neuromuscular excitability, and coma.
absorptionThe absorption of ceftazidime is directly proportional to the size of the dose.
half lifeHalf-life, following IV administration, is approximately 1.9-hours. Since ceftazidime is eliminated almost solely by the kidneys, its serum half-life is significantly prolonged in patients with impaired renal function.
route of eliminationThe elimination of ceftazidime by the kidneys resulted in high therapeutic concentrations in the urine.
drug interactionsAmikacin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Gentamicin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Kanamycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Neomycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Netilmicin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Streptomycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity
Tobramycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity