Home / Drugs / Starting with C /
indicationFor the relief of symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis such as sneezing, rhinorrhea, pruritus and acrimation. Also for the management of mild, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema. Used as self-medication for temporary relief of symptoms associated with the common cold.
pharmacologyClemastine is an antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative side effects. Antihistamines competitively antagonize various physiological effects of histamine including increased capillary permeability and dilatation, the formation of edema, the "flare" and "itch" response, and gastrointestinal and respiratory smooth muscle constriction. Within the vascular tree, H1- receptor antagonists inhibit both the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator effects of histamine. Depending on the dose, H1- receptor antagonists can produce CNS stimulation or depression. Most antihistamines exhibit central and/or peripheral anticholinergic activity. Antihistamines act by competitively blocking H1- receptor sites. Antihistamines do not pharmacologically antagonize or chemically inactivate histamine, nor do they prevent the release of histamine.
mechanism of actionClemastine is a selective histamine H1 antagonist and binds to the histamine H1 receptor. This blocks the action of endogenous histamine, which subsequently leads to temporary relief of the negative symptoms brought on by histamine.
toxicityOral LD50 in rat and mouse is 3550 mg/kg and 730 mg/kg, respectively. Antihistamine overdosage reactions may vary from central nervous system depression to stimulation. In children, stimulation predominates initially in a syndrome which may include excitement, hallucinations, ataxia, incoordination, muscle twitching, athetosis, hyperthermia, cyanosis convulsions, tremors, and hyperreflexia followed by postictal depression and cardio-respiratory arrest. Convulsions in children may be preceded by mild depression. Dry mouth, fixed dilated pupils, flushing of the face, and fever are common. In adults, CNS depression, ranging from drowsiness to coma, is more common.
biotransformationAntihistamines appear to be metabolized in the liver chiefly via mono- and didemethylation and glucuronide conjugation.
absorptionRapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
route of eliminationUrinary excretion is the major mode of elimination.
drug interactionsDonepezil: Possible antagonism of action
Galantamine: Possible antagonism of action
Rivastigmine: Possible antagonism of action
Tacrine: The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Clemastine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Trimethobenzamide: Trimethobenzamide and Clemastine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Triprolidine: Concomitant therapy with triprolidine and clemastine, two anticholinergics and CNS depressants, may result in additive adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects during concomitant therapy.
Trospium: Trospium and Clemastine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.