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indicationUsed to treat infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci, including pneumococci, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and penicillin G-sensitive and penicillin G-resistant staphylococci.
pharmacologyCloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. Cloxacillin is for use against staphylococci that produce beta-lactamase.
mechanism of actionBy binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, cloxacillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cloxacillin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
toxicityOral LD50 in rat and mouse is 5000 mg/kg. Intravenous LD50 in rat is 1660 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include wheezing, tightness in the chest, fever, itching, bad cough, blue skin color, fits, and swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat.
absorptionWell absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
drug interactionsDemeclocycline: Possible antagonism of action
Doxycycline: Possible antagonism of action
Ethinyl Estradiol: This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Mestranol: This anti-infectious agent could decrease the effect of the oral contraceptive
Methacycline: Possible antagonism of action
Methotrexate: The penicillin increases the effect and toxicity of methotrexate
Minocycline: Possible antagonism of action
Oxytetracycline: Possible antagonism of action
Rolitetracycline: Possible antagonism of action
Tetracycline: Possible antagonism of action