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indicationFor treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods, mild uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema, amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma, cold urticaria, dermatographism, and as therapy for anaphylactic reactions adjunctive to epinephrine.
pharmacologyCyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine. Unlike other antihistamines, this drug also antagonizes serotonin receptors. This action makes Cyproheptadine useful in conditions such as vascular headache and anorexia. Cyproheptadine does not prevent the release of histamine but rather competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. Cyproheptadine competitively antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial smooth muscle. Most antihistamines possess significant anticholinergic properties, but Cyproheptadine exerts only weak anticholinergic actions. Blockade of central muscarinic receptors appears to account for Cyproheptadine's antiemetic effects, although the exact mechanism is unknown. Cyproheptadine also competes with serotonin at receptor sites in smooth muscle in the intestines and other locations. Antagonism of serotonin on the appetite center of the hypothalamus may account for Cyproheptadine's ability to stimulate appetite. Cyproheptadine also has been used to counter vascular headaches, which many believe are caused by changes in serotonin activity, however it is unclear how Cyproheptadine exerts a beneficial effect on this condition.
mechanism of actionCyproheptadine competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. This antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors, leading to a reduction of the negative symptoms brought on by histamine HA-receptor binding. Cyproheptadine also competes with serotonin at receptor sites in smooth muscle in the intestines and other locations. Antagonism of serotonin on the appetite center of the hypothalamus may account for Cyproheptadine's ability to stimulate appetite.
biotransformationHepatic (cytochrome P-450 system) and some renal.
absorptionWell absorbed after oral administration.
route of eliminationAfter a single 4 mg oral dose of14C-labelled cyproheptadine HCl in normal subjects, given as tablets 2% to 20% of the radioactivity was excreted in the stools. At least 40% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine.
drug interactionsDonepezil: Possible antagonism of action
Fluoxetine: Possible antagonism of action
Galantamine: Possible antagonism of action
Metyrapone: This combination renders test invalid
Rivastigmine: Possible antagonism of action
Tacrine: The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Cyproheptadine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Triprolidine: Triprolidine and Cyproheptadine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
Trospium: Trospium and Cyproheptadine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.