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indicationFor the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, perennial (non-seasonal) allergic rhinitis. Desloratidine is also used for the sympomatic treatment of pruritus and urticaria (hives) associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria.
pharmacologyDesloratadine is a long-acting second-generation H1-receptor antagonist which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. Histamine is a chemical that causes many of the signs that are part of allergic reactions, such as the swelling of tissues. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other chemicals which produce the effects that we associate with allergies. Desloratadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of cells by histamine. Unlike most other antihistamines, Desloratadine does not enter the brain from the blood and, therefore, does not cause drowsiness.
mechanism of actionLike other H1-blockers, Desloratadine competes with free histamine for binding at H1-receptors in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial smooth muscle. This blocks the action of endogenous histamine, which subsequently leads to temporary relief of the negative symptoms (eg. nasal congestion, watery eyes) brought on by histamine.
half life50 hours
route of eliminationDesloratadine (a major metabolite of loratadine) is extensively metabolized to 3-hydroxydesloratadine, an active metabolite, which is subsequently glucuronidated. Approximately 87% of a 14C-desloratadine dose was equally recovered in urine and feces.
drug interactionsTacrine: The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Desloratadine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Triprolidine: Triprolidine and Desloratadine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
Trospium: Trospium and Desloratadine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.