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indicationFor as adjunctive therapy in the management of diarrhea
pharmacologyDiphenoxylate, an antidiarrheal, is effective as adjunctive therapy in the management of diarrhea. Diphenoxylate is rapidly and extensively metabolized in man by ester hydrolysis to diphenoxylic acid (difenoxine), which is biologically active and the major metabolite in the blood.
mechanism of actionDiphenoxylate is an opiate receptor agonists that stimulate mu receptors in GI to decrease the peristalsis and constrict the sphincters. Diphenoxylate has a direct effect on circular smooth muscle of the bowel, that conceivably results in segmentation and prolongation of gastrointestinal transit time. The clinical antidiarrheal action of diphenoxylate may thus be a consequence of enhanced segmentation that allows increased contact of the intraluminal contents with the intestinal mucosa.
toxicityComa, dry skin and mucous membranes, enlarged pupils of the eyes, extremely high body temperature, flushing, involuntary eyeball movement, lower than normal muscle tone, pinpoint pupils, rapid heartbeat, restlessness, sluggishness, suppressed breathing
half life12-14 hours
drug interactionsDonepezil: Possible antagonism of action
Galantamine: Possible antagonism of action