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indicationDipivefrin is a prodrug which is used as initial therapy for the control of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma.
pharmacologyDipivefrin is a member of a class of drugs known as prodrugs. Prodrugs are usually not active in themselves and require biotransformation to the parent compound before therapeutic activity is seen. These modifications are undertaken to enhance absorption, decrease side effects and enhance stability and comfort, thus making the parent compound a more useful drug. Enhanced absorption makes the prodrug a more efficient delivery system for the parent drug because less drug will be needed to produce the desired therapeutic response. Dipivefrin is a prodrug of epinephrine formed by the diesterification of epinephrine and pivalic acid. The addition of pivaloyl groups to the epinephrine molecule enhances its lipophilic character and, as a consequence, its penetration into the anterior chamber.
mechanism of actionDipivefrin is a prodrug with little or no pharmacologically activity until it is hydrolyzed into epinephrine inside the human eye. The liberated epinephrine, an adrenergic agonist, appears to exert its action by stimulating α -and/or β2-adrenergic receptors, leading to a decrease in aqueous production and an enhancement of outflow facility. The dipivefrin prodrug delivery system is a more efficient way of delivering the therapeutic effects of epinephrine, with fewer side effects than are associated with conventional epinephrine therapy.
toxicityOral LD50 in rat is 183 mg/kg.
biotransformationDipivefrin is converted to epinephrine inside the human eye by enzyme hydrolysis.
absorptionWell absorbed following occular administration.
drug interactionsDesvenlafaxine: Desvenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic and vasopressor effects of dipivefrin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for increased sympathomimetic effects, such as increased blood pressure, chest pain and headache.
Venlafaxine: Venlafaxine may increase the tachycardic and vasopressor effects of dipivefrin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for increased sympathomimetic effects, such as increased blood pressure, chest pain and headache.