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indicationFor use as a preoperative antimuscarinic to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, to reduce the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and to block cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during induction of anesthesia and intubation.
pharmacologyGlycopyrrolate decreases acid secretion in the stomach. Hence it can be used for treating ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, in combination with other medications. In anesthesia, glycopyrrolate injection serves as a preoperative antimuscarinic operation that reduces salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, as well as decreases the acidity of gastric secretions blocks cardiac vagal inhibitory reflexes during intubation
mechanism of actionGlycopyrrolate binds competitively to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Like other anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agents, it inhibits the action of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves and on smooth muscles that respond to acetylcholine but lack cholinergic innervation. These peripheral cholinergic receptors are present in the autonomic effector cells of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node, exocrine glands and, to a limited degree, in the autonomic ganglia. Thus, it diminishes the volume and free acidity of gastric secretions and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal, and bronchial secretions.
toxicitySide effects include dry mouth, difficult urinating, heachaches, diarrhea and constipation. The medication also induces drowsiness or blurred vision. LD50=709 mg/kg (rat, oral).
absorptionRapidly absorbed (1-2 minutes) after intravenous injection
half life0.6-1.2 hours
drug interactionsDonepezil: Possible antagonism of action
Galantamine: Possible antagonism of action
Haloperidol: The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
Rivastigmine: Possible antagonism of action
Tacrine: The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Glycopyrrolate, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Trimethobenzamide: Trimethobenzamide and Glycopyrrolate, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Triprolidine: Triprolidine and Glycopyrrolate, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Trospium: Trospium and Glycopyrrolate, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.