For treatment of pernicious anemia and the prevention and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency arising from alcoholism, malabsorption, tapeworm infestation, celiac, hyperthyroidism, hepatic-biliary tract disease, persistent diarrhea, ileal resection, pancreatic cancer, renal disease, prolonged stress, vegan diets, macrobiotic diets or other restrictive diets. Also for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.
Hydroxocobalamin is a synthetic, injectable form of Vitamin B12. Hydroxocobalamin is actually a precursor of two cofactors or vitamins (Vitamin B12 and Methylcobalamin) which are involved in various biological systems in man. Vitamin B12 is required for the conversion of methylmalonate to succinate. Deficiency of this enzyme could therefore interfere with the production of lipoprotein in myelin sheath tissue and so give rise to neurological lesions. The second cofactor, Methylcobalamin, is necessary for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine which is essential for the metabolism of folic acid. Deficiency of tetrahydrafolate leads to reduced synthesis of thymidylate resulting in reduced synthesis of DNA which is essential for cell maturation. Vitamin B12 is also concerned in the maintenance of sulphydryl groups in reduced form, deficiency leading to decreased amounts of reduced SH content of erythrocytes and liver cells. Overall, vitamin B12 acts as a coenzyme for various metabolic functions, including fat and carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis. It is necessary for growth, cell replication, hematopoiesis, and nucleoprotein as well as myelin synthesis. This is largely due to its effects on metabolism of methionine folic acid, and malonic acid.
mechanism of action
Vitamin B12 exists in four major forms referred to collectively as cobalamins; deoxyadenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, and cyanocobalamin. Two of these, methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin, are primarily used by the body. Methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor. This enzyme is involved in the conversion of the amino acid homocysteine into methionine. Methionine in turn is required for DNA methylation. 5-Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin is a cofactor needed by the enzyme that converts L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This conversion is an important step in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Furthermore, succinyl CoA is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the substances that carries oxygen in red blood cells.
Primarily hepatic. Cobalamins are absorbed in the ileum and stored in the liver. They continuously undergo enterohepatic recycling via secretion in the bile. Part of a dose is excreted in the urine, most of it in the first 8 hours.
Readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, except in malabsorption syndromes. Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the lower half of the ileum.
Approximately 6 days (peak plasma concentration after 8-12 hours from oral administration)
route of elimination
Each hydroxocobalamin molecule can bind one cyanide ion by substituting it for the hydroxo ligand linked to the trivalent cobalt ion, to form cyanocobalamin, which is then excreted in the urine.