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indicationKetazolam could be used for the treatment of anxiety. In approved countries, it is indicated for the treatment of anxiety, tension, irritability and similar stress related symptoms.
pharmacologyBenzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic action. Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell.
mechanism of actionBenzodiazepines share a similar chemical structure and their effects in humans are mainly produced by the allosteric modification of a specific kind of neurotransmitter receptor, the GABAA receptor, which increases the conductance of this inhibitory channel; this results in the various therapeutic effects as well as adverse effects of benzodiazepines. Binding of benzodiazepines to this receptor complex promotes binding of GABA, which in turn increases the conduction of chloride ions across the neuronal cell membrane. This increased conductance raises the membrane potential of the neuron resulting in inhibition of neuronal firing. In addition, different GABAA receptor subtypes have varying distributions within different regions of the brain and therefore control distinct neuronal circuits. Hence, activation of different GABAA receptor subtypes by benzodiazepines may result in distinct pharmacological actions.
toxicitySymptoms of overdose include somnolence, confusion, coma, and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored.
biotransformationKetazolam breaks down in the blood to diazepam which breaks down to demoxepam which breaks down to desmethyldiazepam.
half life26-200 hours
route of eliminationDiazepam and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine, predominantly as their glucuronide conjugates.
drug interactionsCimetidine: Cimetidine may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, ketazolam.
Clozapine: Increased risk of toxicity
Omeprazole: Omeprazole may increase the effect of the benzodiazepine, ketazolam.