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indicationIndicated as an add-on or prophylactic oral medication in the chronic treatment of mild atopic asthmatic children. Also used as self-medication for the temporary relief of itching of the eye due to allergic conjunctivitis (ophthalmic).
pharmacologyKetotifen is a fast acting non-competitive histamine antagonist. It inhibits the release of mediators from mast cells. It is a non-bronchodilator antiasthmatic drug (when taken orally).
mechanism of actionKetotifen is a relatively selective, non-competitive histamine antagonist (H1-receptor) and mast cell stabilizer. Ketotifen inhibits the release of mediators from mast cells involved in hypersensitivity reactions. Decreased chemotaxis and activation of eosinophils have also been demonstrated. Ketotifen also inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase. Properties of ketotifen which may contribute to its antiallergic activity and its ability to affect the underlying pathology of asthma include inhibition of the development of airway hyper-reactivity associated with activation of platelets by PAF (Platelet Activating Factor), inhibition of PAF-induced accumulation of eosinophils and platelets in the airways, suppression of the priming of eosinophils by human recombinant cytokines and antagonism of bronchoconstriction due to leukotrienes. Ketotifen inhibits of the release of allergic mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes C4 and D4(SRS-A) and PAF.
toxicityAdverse reactions include headaches, conjunctival injection and rhinitis.
biotransformationPrimarily hepatic. The main metabolite found in both plasma and urine is the inactive ketotifen-N-glucuronide. Nor-ketotifen, the N-demethylated metabolite, and the 10-alpha-hydroxyl derivative are the only other metabolites detectable in human urine.
absorptionFollowing oral administration absorption is at least 60%
half life21 hours (for elimination)
drug interactionsTacrine: The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Ketotifen, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Trimethobenzamide: Trimethobenzamide and Ketotifen, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Triprolidine: Triprolidine and Ketotifen, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
Trospium: Trospium and Ketotifen, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.