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indicationFor the treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in pediatric populations aged 6 to 12 years.
pharmacologyLisdexamfetamine is a pro-drug of dextroamphetamine. It works primarily by inducing the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine from their storage areas in nerve terminals. Both of these transmitters contribute to maintaining alertness, increasing focus, and sustaining thought, effort, and motivation.
mechanism of actionLisdexamfetamine is a pro-drug of dextroamphetamine. Amphetamines are thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space. Norepinephrine and dopamine contribute to maintaining alertness, increasing focus, and sustaining thought, effort, and motivation. However, the exact therapeutic action in ADHD is not known.
toxicityManifestations of acute overdosage with amphetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central nervous system stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma.
biotransformationLisdexamfetamine is converted to dextroamphetamine and L-lysine, which is believed to occur by first-pass intestinal and/or hepatic metabolism. Lisdexamfetamine is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.
absorptionAfter oral administration, lisdexamfetamine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
half lifeThe plasma elimination half-life of lisdexamfetamine typically averaged less than one hour.
drug interactionsTramadol: Increased risk of serotonin syndrome. Monitor for symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
Trandolapril: Lisdexamfetamine may reduce the efficacy of Trandolapril.
Tranylcypromine: The MAO inhibitor, Tranylcypromine, may increase the vasopressor effect of the amphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
Triprolidine: Triprolidine may reduce the sedative effect of the antihistamine, Lisdexamfetamine.