|A bacteriostatic or bactericidal agent depending on the concentration and susceptibility of the infecting organism. Nitrofurantoin is active against some gram positive organisms such as S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, S. agalactiae, group D streptococci, viridians streptococci and Corynebacterium. Its spectrum of activity against gram negative organisms includes E. coli, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Salmonella and Shigella. It may be used as an alternative to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for treating urinary tract infections though it may be less effective at eradicating vaginal bacteria. May also be used in females as prophylaxis against recurrent cystitis related to coitus. Nitrofurantoin is highly stable to the development of bacterial resistance, a property thought to be due to its multiplicity of mechanisms of action.
Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
|Manufacturers||Watson laboratories inc
Shionogi pharma inc
Procter and gamble pharmaceuticals inc sub procter and gamble co
Lannett co inc
Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
|Packagers||Amerisource Health Services Corp.
A-S Medication Solutions LLC
Bryant Ranch Prepack
Buffalo Molasses LLC
Central Texas Community Health Centers
Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
Direct Dispensing Inc.
Direct Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
Goldline Laboratories Inc.
H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
Heartland Repack Services LLC
Kaiser Foundation Hospital
Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
Norwich Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Patient First Corp.
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
Pharmacy Service Center
Physicians Total Care Inc.
Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Prepak Systems Inc.
Promex Medical Inc.
Rebel Distributors Corp.
Sandhills Packaging Inc.
Sciele Pharma Inc.
Scruggs Pharmacal Co. Inc.
Shionogi Pharma Inc.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
United Research Laboratories Inc.
Vangard Labs Inc.
Warner Chilcott Co. Inc.
May be used as an alternative in the treatment of urinary tract infections. May be used by females pericoitally for prophylaxis against recurrent cystitis related to coitus.
Nitrofurantoin exhibits bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects by inhibiting the synthesis of DNA, RNA, protein and cell wall synthesis.
mechanism of action
Nitrofurantoin is activated by bacterial flavoproteins (nitrofuran reductase) to active reduced reactive intermediates that are thought to modulate and damage ribosomal proteins or other macromolecules, especially DNA, causing inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall synthesis. The overall effect is inhibition of bacterial growth or cell death.
Acute toxicity may cause vomiting. Adverse effects include nausea and urine discolouration. Rare hepatotoxic and hypersensitivity reactions have occurred. Hemolytic anemia is a risk in patients with G6PD deficiency. Ascending polyneuropathy may occur with prolonged therapy or in patients with low creatinine clearance.
Partially metabolized in liver to aminofurantoin.
Readily absorbed in GI tract primarily in small intestine. Enhanced by food or delayed gastric emptying via enhanced dissolution rate of the drug.