For treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and blood stream, caused by susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Polymyxin B sulfate is a mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa
strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and the gram-negative cocci, N. gonorrhea
and N. menigitidis
, are resistant.
mechanism of action
Polymyxin B sulfate has a bactericidal action against almost all gram-negative bacilli except the Proteus group. Polymyxin B sulfate interacts with the lipopolysaccharide of the cytoplasmic outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, altering membrane permeability and causing cell death. It does not need to enter the cell.
Overdose can cause stomach pains, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Not absorbed from the normal alimentary tract.
route of elimination
The drug is excreted slowly by the kidneys.