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indicationFor the treatment of infections due to all species of schistosoma.
pharmacologyPraziquantel is an anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations. Praziquantel effects the permeability of the cell membrane resulting in the contraction of schistosomes. The drug further causes vacuolization and disintegration of the schistosome tegument. The effect is more marked on adult worms compared to young worms. An increased calcium influx may play an important role. Secondary effects are inhibition of glucose uptake, lowering of glycogen levels and stimulation of lactate release. The action of praziquantel is limited very specifically to trematodes and cestodes; nematodes (including filariae) are not affected.
mechanism of actionPraziquantel works by causing severe spasms and paralysis of the worms' muscles. This paralysis is accompanied - and probably caused - by a rapid Ca 2+ influx inside the schistosome. Morphological alterations are another early effect of praziquantel. These morphological alterations are accompanied by an increased exposure of schistosome antigens at the parasite surface. The worms are then either completely destroyed in the intestine or passed in the stool. An interesting quirk of praziquantel is that it is relatively ineffective against juvenile schistosomes. While initially effective, effectiveness against schistosomes decreases until it reaches a minimum at 3-4 weeks. Effectiveness then increases again until it is once again fully effective at 6-7 weeks. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), an essential detoxification enzyme in parasitic helminths, is a major vaccine target and a drug target against schistosomiasis. Schistosome calcium ion channels are currently the only known target of praziquantel.
absorptionRapidly absorbed (80%)
half life0.8-1.5 hours (in serum)
drug interactionsCarbamazepine: Markedly lower praziquantel levels
Chloroquine: Markedly lower praziquantel levels
Phenytoin: Markedly lower praziquantel levels
Rifampin: Significant decrease in praziquantel level
Telithromycin: Telithromycin may reduce clearance of Praziquantel. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Praziquantel if Telithromycin is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Voriconazole: Voriconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of praziquantel by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of praziquantel if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.