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Home / Drugs / Starting with P / Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine is the 4-methanol form of vitamin B6 and is converted to pyridoxal 5-phosphate in the body. Pyridoxal 5-phosphate is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and vitamin B6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading. [PubChem]
Campoviton 6
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CategoriesEssential Vitamin
Vitamins (Vitamin B Complex)
Anti-inflammatory Agents
Vitamin B Complex
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Vitamin B6


For the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and for the prophylaxis of isoniazid-induced peripheral neuropathy.


Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin used in the prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy in those receiving isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH). Vitamin B6 has been found to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a small group of subjects with essential hypertension. Hypertension is another risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Another study showed pyridoxine hydrochloride to inhibit ADP- or epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and to lower total cholesterol levels and increase HDL-cholesterol levels, again in a small group of subjects. Vitamin B6, in the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, was found to protect vascular endothelial cells in culture from injury by activated platelets. Endothelial injury and dysfunction are critical initiating events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Human studies have demonstrated that vitamin B6 deficiency affects cellular and humoral responses of the immune system. Vitamin B6 deficiency results in altered lymphocyte differentiation and maturation, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, impaired antibody production, decreased lymphocyte proliferation and decreased interleukin (IL)-2 production, among other immunologic activities.

mechanism of action

Vitamin B6 is the collective term for a group of three related compounds, pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM), and their phosphorylated derivatives, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). Although all six of these compounds should technically be referred to as vitamin B6, the term vitamin B6 is commonly used interchangeably with just one of them, pyridoxine. Vitamin B6, principally in its biologically active coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions, including the metabolism of amino acids and glycogen, the synthesis of nucleic acids, hemogloblin, sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids, and the synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


Oral Rat LD50 = 4 gm/kg. Toxic effects include convulsions, dyspnea, hypermotility, diarrhea, ataxia and muscle weakness.




The B vitamins are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, except in malabsorption syndromes. Pyridoxine is absorbed mainly in the jejunum.

half life

15-20 days