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Home / Drugs / Starting with Q / Quinapril

Quinapril is a prodrug that belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to quinaprilat (quinapril diacid) following oral administration. Quinaprilat is a competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Quinapril may be used to treat essential hypertension and congestive heart failure.
CategoriesAntihypertensive Agents
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors
ManufacturersPfizer pharmaceuticals ltd
Actavis totowa llc
Apotex inc
Genpharm inc
Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
Lupin ltd
Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
Sandoz inc
Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
Watson laboratories inc florida
PackagersActavis Group
Apotex Inc.
A-S Medication Solutions LLC
Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
Cardinal Health
Direct Dispensing Inc.
Dispensing Solutions
Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
Eon Labs
Goedecke GmbH
Greenstone LLC
Heartland Repack Services LLC
InvaGen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Lupin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Ohm Laboratories Inc.
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Pfizer Inc.
Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
Pharmacia Inc.
Physicians Total Care Inc.
Prepackage Specialists
Ranbaxy Laboratories
Rebel Distributors Corp.
Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
Southwood Pharmaceuticals
Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
SynonymsQuinapril HCl
Quinapril Hydrochloride
Quinaprilum [Latin]


For the treatment of hypertension and as adjunct therapy in the treatment of congestive heart failure. May also be used to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy.


Quinapril is a nonpeptide, non-sulfhydryl prodrug that is deesterified to quinaprilat (quinapril diacid), its major active metabolite following oral administration. Quinaprilat lowers blood pressure by antagonizing the effect of the RAAS. The RAAS is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to ATI, which is subsequently cleaved to ATII by ACE. ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. Second, ATII stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption from the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Third, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of ATI to ATII and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and may sustain the effects of quinaprilat by causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.

mechanism of action

There are two isoforms of ACE: the somatic isoform, which exists as a glycoprotein comprised of a single polypeptide chain of 1277; and the testicular isoform, which has a lower molecular mass and is thought to play a role in sperm maturation and binding of sperm to the oviduct epithelium. Somatic ACE has two functionally active domains, N and C, which arise from tandem gene duplication. Although the two domains have high sequence similarity, they play distinct physiological roles. The C-domain is predominantly involved in blood pressure regulation while the N-domain plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. ACE inhibitors bind to and inhibit the activity of both domains, but have much greater affinity for and inhibitory activity against the C-domain. Quinaprilat, the principle active metabolite of quinapril, competes with ATI for binding to ACE and inhibits and enzymatic proteolysis of ATI to ATII. Decreasing ATII levels in the body decreases blood pressure by inhibiting the pressor effects of ATII as described in the Pharmacology section above. Quinaprilat also causes an increase in plasma renin activity likely due to a loss of feedback inhibition mediated by ATII on the release of renin and/or stimulation of reflex mechanisms via baroreceptors.


Overdose may lead to severe hypotension. LD50=1739mg/kg (orally in mice). The most common adverse effects observed in controlled clinical trials were dizziness, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue, and nausea/vomiting.




Peak plasma concentrations of quinapril occur within one hour following oral administration. The extent of absorption is at least 60%. The rate and extent of quinapril absorption are diminished moderately (approximately 25-30%) when ACCUPRIL tablets are administered during a high-fat meal.

half life

Elimination half life is 2 hours with a prolonged terminal phase of 25 hours.

route of elimination

Quinaprilat is eliminated primarily by renal excretion, up to 96% of an IV dose

drug interactions

Amiloride: Increased risk of hyperkalemia

Drospirenone: Increased risk of hyperkalemia

Lithium: The ACE inhibitor increases serum levels of lithium

Potassium: Increased risk of hyperkalemia

Spironolactone: Increased risk of hyperkalemia

Tetracycline: Quinapril may decrease the absorption of tetracycline.

Tizanidine: Tizanidine increases the risk of hypotension with the ACE inhibitor

Tobramycin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Treprostinil: Additive hypotensive effect. Monitor antihypertensive therapy during concomitant use.

Triamterene: Increased risk of hyperkalemia

Trovafloxacin: Quinapril may decrease the absorption of orally administered Trovafloxacin. The Quinapril formulation contains magnesium ions that may intefere with Trovafloxacin absorption. Administer Trovafloxacin 2 hours before or 6 hours after the Quinapril dose to minimize the interaction.