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Home / Drugs / Starting with R / Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. It is marketed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline as a stand-alone drug (Avandia) and in combination with metformin (Avandamet) or with glimepiride (Avandaryl). Like other thiazolidinediones, the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone is by activation of the intracellular receptor class of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPARγ. Rosiglitazone is a selective ligand of PPARγ, and has no PPARα-binding action. Apart from its effect on insulin resistance, it appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect: nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) levels fall and inhibitor (IκB) levels increase in patients on rosiglitazone. Recent research has suggested that rosiglitazone may also be of benefit to a subset of patients with Alzheimer's disease not expressing the ApoE4 allele. This is the subject of a clinical trial currently underway.
CategoriesHypoglycemic Agents
Vasodilator Agents
Fibrinolytic Agents
ManufacturersSb pharmco puerto rico inc
PackagersA-S Medication Solutions LLC
Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
Cardinal Health
Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
Kaiser Foundation Hospital
Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Pharmacy Service Center
Physicians Total Care Inc.
Prepackage Specialists
Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
Searle and Co.
Southwood Pharmaceuticals
Tya Pharmaceuticals
Vangard Labs Inc.
West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
SynonymsRosigliazone maleate
Rosiglitazone maleate


For the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus


Rosiglitazone, a member of the drug group known as the thiazolidinediones or "insulin sensitizers", is not chemically or functionally related to the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, the biguanides, or the sulfonylureas. Rosiglitazone targets insulin resistance and, hence, is used alone or with metformine or sulfonylurea to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

mechanism of action

Rosiglitazone acts as an agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors regulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. In this way, rosiglitazone enhances tissue sensitivity to insulin.


Side effects include fluid retention, congestive heart failure (CHF), liver disease


Hepatic. Rosiglitazone is extensively metabolized in the liver to inactive metabolites via N-demethylation, hydroxylation, and conjugation with sulfate and glucuronic acid. In vitro data have shown that Cytochrome (CYP) P450 isoenzyme 2C8 (CYP2C8) and to a minor extent CYP2C9 are involved in the hepatic metabolism of rosiglitazone.


The absolute bioavailability of rosiglitazone is 99%. Peak plasma concentrations are observed about 1 hour after dosing. Administration of rosiglitazone with food resulted in no change in overall exposure (AUC), but there was an approximately 28% decrease in Cmax and a delay in Tmax (1.75 hours). These changes are not likely to be clinically significant; therefore, rosiglitazone may be administered with or without food.

half life

3-4 hours

route of elimination

Following oral or intravenous administration of [14C]rosiglitazone maleate, approximately 64% and 23% of the dose was eliminated in the urine and in the feces, respectively.

drug interactions

Colesevelam: Bile Acid Sequestrants may decrease the absorption of Antidiabetic Agents (Thiazolidinedione). Separate the dosing of bile acid sequestrants and thiazolidinediones by at least 2 hours. Monitor for reduced effects of the antidiabetic agents.

Gemfibrozil: Increases the effect and toxicity of rosiglitazone/pioglitazone

Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole increases the effect of rosiglitazone

Rifampin: Rifampin reduces levels and efficacy of rosiglitazone

Somatropin recombinant: Somatropin may antagonize the hypoglycemic effect of rosiglitazone. Monitor for changes in fasting and postprandial blood sugars.

Tretinoin: The moderate CYP2C8 inhibitor, Rosiglitazone, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of oral Tretinoin. Monitor for changes in Tretinoin effectiveness and adverse/toxic effects if Rosiglitazone is initiated, discontinued to dose changed.