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indicationFor the treatment of excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, sialorrhoea, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome and motion sickness.
pharmacologyScopolamine is a muscarinic antagonist structurally similar to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and acts by blocking the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and is thus classified as an anticholinergic. Scopolamine has many uses including the prevention of motion sickness. It is not clear how Scopolamine prevents nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness. The vestibular part of the ear is very important for balance. When a person becomes disoriented due to motion, the vestibule sends a signal through nerves to the vomiting center in the brain, and vomiting occurs. Acetylcholine is a chemical that nerves use to transmit messages to each other. It is believe that Scopolamine prevents communication between the nerves of the vestibule and the vomiting center in the brain by blocking the action of acetylcholine. Scopolamine also may work directly on the vomiting center. Scopolamine must be taken before the onset of motion sickness to be effective.
mechanism of actionScopolamine acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system (specifically the vomiting center).
absorptionBioavailability is 10 - 50%
half life4.5 hours
route of eliminationLess than 10% of the total dose is excreted in the urine as parent and metabolites over 108 hours.
drug interactionsCinitapride: Anticholinergic agents like scopolamine may reduce the action of cinitapride.
Donepezil: Possible antagonism of action
Galantamine: Possible antagonism of action
Haloperidol: The anticholinergic increases the risk of psychosis and tardive dyskinesia
Tacrine: The therapeutic effects of the central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Tacrine, and/or the anticholinergic, Scopolamine, may be reduced due to antagonism. The interaction may be beneficial when the anticholinergic action is a side effect. Monitor for decreased efficacy of both agents.
Trimethobenzamide: Trimethobenzamide and Scopolamine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.
Triprolidine: Triprolidine and Scopolamine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhance their adverse/toxic effects. Additive CNS depressant effects may also occur. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic and CNS depressant effects.
Trospium: Trospium and Scopolamine, two anticholinergics, may cause additive anticholinergic effects and enhanced adverse/toxic effects. Monitor for enhanced anticholinergic effects.