For use as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control in combination with metformin or a PPARγ agonist (e.g., thiazolidinediones) when the single agent alone, with diet and exercise, does not provide adequate glycemic control.
Sitagliptin is an orally-active member of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. The benefit of this medicine is expected to be its lower side-effects of hypoglycemia in the control of blood glucose values. The drug works to diminish the effects of a protein/enzyme (by the inhibition of this protein/enzyme) on the pancreas at the level of release of glucagon (diminishes its release) and at the level of insulin (increases its synthesis and release) until blood glucose levels are restored toward normal, in which case the protein/enzyme-enzyme inhibitor becomes less effective and the amounts of insulin released diminishes thus diminishing the "overshoot" of hypoglycemia seen in other oral hypoglycemic agents.
mechanism of action
Sitagliptin is a highly selective DPP-4 inhibitor, which is believed to exert its actions in patients with type 2 diabetes by slowing the inactivation of incretin hormones, thereby increasing the concentration and prolonging the action of these hormones. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), are released by the intestine throughout the day, and levels are increased in response to a meal. These hormones are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme, DPP-4. The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells by intracellular signaling pathways involving cyclic AMP. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. By increasing and prolonging active incretin levels, sitagliptin increases insulin release and decreases glucagon levels in the circulation in a glucose-dependent manner. These changes lead to a decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)levels, as well as a lower fasting and postprandial glucose concentration. Sitagliptin demonstrates selectivity for DPP-4 and does not inhibit DPP-8 or DPP-9 activity in vitro at concentrations approximating those from therapeutic doses.
Sitagliptin does not undergo extensive metabolism. In vitro studies indicate that the primary enzyme responsible for the limited metabolism of sitagliptin was CYP3A4 (oxidation), with contribution from CYP2C8.
Rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with an absolute bioavailability of 87%.
route of elimination
Approximately 79% of sitagliptin is excreted unchanged in the urine with metabolism being a minor pathway of elimination. Following administration of an oral [14C]sitagliptin dose to healthy subjects, approximately 100% of the administered radioactivity was eliminated in feces (13%) or urine (87%) within one week of dosing. Elimination of sitagliptin occurs primarily via renal excretion and involves active tubular secretion.