Studies published by diMasi et al. in 2003,

Studies published by diMasi et al. in 2003, report an average pre-tax, capitalized cost of approximately $800 million to bring one of the drugs from the study to market. Also, this $800 million figure includes opportunity costs of $400 million. A study published in 2006 estimates that costs vary from around $500 million to $2 billion depending on the therapy or the developing firm. A study published in 2010 in the journal Health Economics, including an author from the US Federal Trade Commission, was critical of the methods used by diMasi et al. but came up with a higher estimate of ~$1.2 billion.